Coffee Cultivation and Industry in Brazil: A Comprehensive Review

  • Julio Vartan Federal University of Espírito Santo
Keywords: Coffee, Brazil, coffee cultivation, coffee industry, sustainability, environmental impact, economic significance.


Brazil is renowned as the world's largest producer and exporter of coffee, playing a pivotal role in the global coffee industry. This article provides a comprehensive review of coffee cultivation, processing, and the coffee industry in Brazil. It examines the historical context, geographical factors, economic significance, and environmental impact of coffee production in the country. The article also explores the challenges faced by the Brazilian coffee industry, such as climate change, sustainability issues, and market fluctuations. Through an in-depth analysis of the Brazilian coffee sector, this study contributes to a better understanding of the complexities and dynamics of coffee production in one of the most significant coffee-producing nations.


Association of Coffee Exporters of Brazil (CECAFÉ). (2020). Coffee in Brazil.

Borem, F. M., Da Silva, D. R., & Reis, R. A. (2017). Coffee Post-harvest: Sustainable Alternatives. In Achieving Sustainable Cultivation of Coffee (Vol. 1, pp. 95-113). Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing.

Carvalhaes, M. A., & Iyama, M. (2020). Coffee Supply Chains and Sustainability in Brazil. In Handbook of Coffee Post-Harvest Technology (pp. 585-601). Wiley.

DaMatta, F. M. (2004). Ecological Aspects of Coffee Plant–Arthropod–Pathogen Interactions. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 16(2), 147-155.

Davis, M. (2019). Coffee: A Global History. Reaktion Books.

Guimarães, R. M., Machado, A. C. Z., Soares, A. R., Rodrigues, L. A., & de Carvalho, F. I. F. (2019). Brazilian Coffee Production and Export: Scenario, Barriers, and Perspectives. Brazilian Business Review, 16(3), 251-266.

IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). (2021). Crops Production.

Läderach, P., Martinez-Valle, A., Schroth, G., & Castro, N. (2013). Predicting the future climatic suitability for cocoa farming of the world's leading producer countries, Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. Climatic Change, 119(3-4), 841-854.

Mendonça, H. A. (2020). The global coffee sector: Issues and prospects. Review of Agrarian Studies, 10(2), 1-26.

Petroni, L. M. (2017). Is the Brazilian coffee sector environmentally sustainable?. Ecology and Society, 22(4).

Raneri, J. E., & Clark, G. A. (2018). A growing problem: Coffee and climate change. The Journal of Environmental Investing, 8(1), 1-31.

Ribeiro, C. G. D., de Carvalho, L. M. J., Carvalho, G. R., & Bastos, F. D. S. (2019). Post-harvest processing of coffee beans: A review. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 13(8), 1219-1233.

Rodas, C. L., & Orrego, C. E. (2019). The sustainability of the coffee supply chain in Colombia and Brazil. Sustainability, 11(18), 4862.

Sartorelli, D. S., Martins, I. S., & de Souza, J. P. R. B. (2005). Consumption of coffee and coronary heart disease mortality. Epidemiology, 16(1), 103-105.

Silva, C. F. D., de Souza, J. D. A., da Cunha, M. F., da Silva, J. F. M., & Bacchi, M. A. (2020). Coffee Processing Wastewater Treatment. In Handbook of Coffee Post-Harvest Technology (pp. 459-480). Wiley.

Viani, R. A. G., de Melo, P. R. B., Coltro, L., de Matos, A. T., & Conti, M. M. (2019). The coffee supply chain in Brazil: An analysis from the production to the retail. Acta Scientiarum. Animal Sciences, 41.

World Coffee Research. (2020). 2020 Annual Report.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2016). International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Volume 116: Coffee, Tea, Mate, Methylxanthines, and Methylglyoxal.

Yeretzian, C., Jordan, A., Badoud, R., Lindinger, W., Blank, I., & Juillerat, M. A. (2002). Characterization of the Coffee Aroma by Means of Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction–Gas Chromatography–Olfactometry. Analytical Chemistry, 74(3), 459-466.

Alves, G. R., Borem, F. M., Cirillo, M. A., & Ferrão, M. A. G. (2015). New Coffea arabica Microsatellite Markers for Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure. PLOS ONE, 10(5), e0124580.

Alves, R. E., Carvalho, C. W. P., & de Queiroz, M. E. L. R. (2014). Brazilian coffee—Identity, technology and quality. Food Research International, 61, 16-22.

Bezerra, B. S., Soares, T. S., Brito, G. R., & Santos, R. F. (2019). Influence of coffee harvesting methods on the quality of Arabica coffee beans. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 43.

Carvalho, A., & Oliveira, G. (2020). Analysis of Environmental Impact of Coffee Crop in Brazil and the Identification of the Carbon Footprint of a Cultivated Area. Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, 9(3), 168-186.

DaMatta, F. M., & Ramalho, J. D. C. (2006). Impacts of drought and temperature stress on coffee physiology and production: a review. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 18(1), 55-81.

de Morais, H., & Marques, C. (2018). Coffee value chain dynamics and implications for family farmers' livelihoods in the Atlantic forest of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Sustainability, 10(5), 1605.

de Resende, F. V., Marraccini, P., & Cunha, R. L. (2020). Coffee Processing: From Fruits to Green Beans. In Handbook of Coffee Post-Harvest Technology (pp. 189-209). Wiley.

Frost, E., & Bond, E. (Eds.). (2020). Routledge Handbook of Sustainable and Regenerative Food Systems. Routledge.

Macedo, F. L. D. S., Vieira, H. D., Montenegro, A. K. F., Pereira, J. A. A. R., & DaMatta, F. M. (2012). Somatic embryogenesis in Coffea canephora: Effect of temperature and carbohydrate sources. Scientia Horticulturae, 136, 1-7.

Marengo, J. A., & Espinoza, J. C. (2016). Extreme seasonal droughts and floods in Amazonia: causes, trends and impacts. International Journal of Climatology, 36(3), 1033-1050.

Montagnon, C., Leroy, T., & Jankowski, F. (2019). The role of Central America in the genetic diversity of the cultivated Coffea arabica L. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 66(3), 657-670.

Nogueira, L. A. H., Antunes, W. C., & DaMatta, F. M. (2019). Physiological mechanisms underlying increased drought stress resilience in plants pre-inoculated with plant growth-promoting bacteria. Science of the Total Environment, 654, 185-196.

Ovalle-Rivera, O., Läderach, P., Bunn, C., Obersteiner, M., Schroth, G., & Pinto, A. (2015). Projected shifts in Coffea arabica suitability among major global producing regions due to climate change. PloS one, 10(4), e0124155.

Paula, J. F. D., Diniz, P. R. B., Borém, A., & Lima, E. (2019). Brazilian Coffee: Breeding and Pathology. In Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement (pp. 535-550). Woodhead Publishing.

Soto, G., Almada, R., Nardini, L., & Lechner, B. E. (2021). Microbial diversity and metabolic network in organic and conventional coffee agroecosystems. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 97(1), fiab083.

Tarr, P. T. (2018). Coffee and Sustainability: A Comparative Analysis of Coffee Production and Sustainability Initiatives in Brazil and Ethiopia. Coffee Science, 13(3), 306-314.

Zambolim, L., Vale, F. X. R., Chaves, G. M., & Zambolim, E. M. (2017). Coffee Plant Diseases. Springer.

Zullo, J. Jr., Cury, G. Q., Pezzopane, J. R. M., Montanari, R., & Prado, R. M. (2021). Replacing traditional coffee plantations with agroforestry systems: Economic and environmental impacts in Brazilian Cerrado. Journal of Cleaner Production, 287, 125454.

How to Cite
Julio Vartan. (2023). Coffee Cultivation and Industry in Brazil: A Comprehensive Review. International Journal of Science and Society, 5(3), 323-332.