Lone Wolf Terrorism Trends in Indonesia

  • Avina Waliyanri Terrorism Studies, School of Strategic and Global, Universitas Indonesia
  • Muhamad Syauqillah Terrorism Studies, School of Strategic and Global, Universitas Indonesia
Keywords: terrorism, lone wolf, Indonesia

Abstract

In the past few years, lone wolf terrorism has become a trending topic in the world of terrorism. We look at various definitions and trends of lone wolf terrorism from previous literature. This research aims to determine if there is a trend in lone wolf terrorism in Indonesia. The profile of the attacker is categorized based on the attacker’s age, gender, marriage status, occupation, and education, while the attack is categorized based on the attack’s target, region, choice of weapon, survival, casualties, and ideology or motive. The data is presented as descriptive statistics of qualitative nominal data in pie charts, and the results are discussed and analyzed. It was found that lone wolf terrorists do not have a single profile, but there are trends found where the attackers are typically male, single, in the 20s to 30s, self-employed, and at least graduated high school. The attacks usually target police, are based on ISIS ideology, uses either sharp weapon or explosives, and does not result in death. The attacker also typically survives, and all the attacks happened in the island of Java, Indonesia

References

Anderson, R. A. (2019). Online Utilization for Terrorist Self-Radicalization Purposes. In J. R. Vacca (Ed.), Online Terrorist Propaganda, Recruitment, and Radicalization (1st ed., p. 30). CRC Press.

Ashghor, A. (2022). Redefine The Concept of Lone Wolf in the Context of Global Jihad. Journal of Terrorism Studies, 4(1), 14. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.7454/jts.v4i1.1047

Bakker, E., & de Graaf, B. (2010). Lone Wolves: How to Prevent This Phenomenon?. International Center for Counter-Terrorism - The Hague.

Borum, R., Fein, R., & Vossekuil, B. (2012). A dimensional approach to analyzing lone offender terrorism. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(5), 389–396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.04.003

BPS-Statistics Indonesia. (2022). Statistik Indonesia Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2022. Retrieved from https://www.bps.go.id/publication/2022/02/25/0a2afea4fab72a5d052cb315/statistik-indonesia-2022.html

BPS-Statistics Indonesia. (2021, December). Persentase Penduduk Berumur 15 tahun Ke Atas menurut Daerah Tempat Tinggal, Jenis Kelamin, dan Jenjang Pendidikan tertinggi Yang Ditamatkan, 2009-2021. Retrieved from https://www.bps.go.id/statictable/2012/04/20/1610/persentase-penduduk-berumur-15-tahun-ke-atas-menurut-daerah-tempat-tinggal-jenis-kelamin-dan-jenjang-pendidikan-tertinggi-yang-ditamatkan-2009-2021.html

Bunzel, C. (2019). From Paper State to Caliphate: The Ideology of the Islamic State (Vol. 19). Center for Middle East Policy at Brookings. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/The-ideology-of-the-Islamic-State

Damayanti, A., Hemay, I., Muchtadlirin, Aziz, S. A., & Pranawati, R. (2013). Perkembangan Terorisme di Indonesia. Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Terorisme.

DataReportal. (2022). Digital 2022 Indonesia. Retrieved from https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2022-indonesia

Fitriani, Satria, A., Sari, P. P. N., & Adriana, R. (2018). The Current State of Terrorism in Indonesia: Vulnerable Groups, Networks, and Responses. In G. Iacovino & F. Manenti (Eds.), The Evolution of Jihadist Radicalization in Asia. Centre for Strategic and International Studies.

Gill, P., Horgan, J., & Deckert, P. (2014). Bombing Alone: Tracing the Motivations and Antecedent Behaviors of Lone‐Actor Terrorists. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 59(2), 425–435. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.12312

Hamm, M. S., & Spaaij, R. F. J. (2017). The age of lone wolf terrorism. Columbia University Press.

Hamm, M., & Spaaj, R. (2015). Lone Wolf Terrorism in America: Using Knowledge of Radicalization Pathways to Forge Prevention Strategies. U.S. Department of Justice.

Hewitt, C. (2003). Understanding terrorism in America: From the Klan to al Qaeda. Routledge.

Kaliyadan, F., & Kulkarni, V. (2019). Types of variables, descriptive statistics, and sample size. Indian Dermatology Online Journal, 10(1), 82. https://doi.org/10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_468_18

Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 5 of 2018 on the Amendment to Law Number 15 of 2003 on the Establishment of Government Regulation in Substitute of Law Number 1 of 2002 on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Terrorism Becoming a Law

Lloyd, M., & Pauwels, A. (2021). Lone Actors as a Challenge for P/CVE (Radicalisation Awareness Network). European Union.

Phillips, P. J. (2011). Lone Wolf Terrorism. Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy, 17(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.2202/1554-8597.1207

Riyanta, S. (2022). Shortcut to Terrorism: Self-Radicalization and Lone- Wolf Terror Acts: A Case Study of Indonesia. Journal of Terrorism Studies, 4(1), 21. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.7454/jts.v4i1.1043

Schuurman, B., Bakker, E., Gill, P., & Bouhana, N. (2018). Lone Actor Terrorist Attack Planning and Preparation: A Data-Driven Analysis. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 63(4), 1191–1200. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13676

Smith, B. L., Gruenewald, J., Roberts, P., & Damphousse, K. R. (2015). The Emergence of Lone Wolf Terrorism: Patterns of Behavior and Implications for Intervention. In M. Deflem (Ed.), Sociology of Crime, Law and Deviance (Vol. 20, pp. 89–110). Emerald Group Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1521-613620150000020005

Spaaij, R. (2010). The enigma of lone wolf terrorism: An assessment. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33, 854-870. https://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2010.501426

Spaaij, R. (2012). Understanding Lone Wolf Terrorism. Springer Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2981-0

UNODC. (2021). Adjustment and Resilience: Preventing Violent Extremism in Indonesia during COVID-19 and beyond.

Yayla, A. S. (2021). Prevention of Recruitment to Terrorism. In A. P. Schmid (Ed.), Handbook of Terrorism Prevention and Preparedness. ICCT Press Publication.

Published
2022-09-15
How to Cite
Waliyanri, A., & Syauqillah, M. (2022). Lone Wolf Terrorism Trends in Indonesia. International Journal of Science and Society, 4(3), 372-384. https://doi.org/10.54783/ijsoc.v4i3.529