Analysis of the Relationship between Nutritional Status and Health of Female Workers Who Received and Didn't Get Nutritious Food and Drinks on Night Work Shifts

  • Tresye Widiastuty Paidi Cyber Expert Employment Supervisor & Directorate of Labor Inspection and Occupational Safety and Health Examiner, Ministry of Manpower of the Republic of Indonesia
  • Evi Mulyaningsih Widyaiswara Middle Expert in the Field of Labor Inspection Manpower & Center Development of Employment Human Resources, Ministry of Manpower, Republic Indonesia
Keywords: Woman, Night Shift worker, Work, Nutrition.


The government presents special protection for woman workers who works at the night shift. Requiring employer to provide nutritious food and beverage according to Manpower Act also, it is regulated on Ministerial Decree No. 224 Year 2003, Labour inspectors found some companies were not comply the regulation, it has an impact towards nutrition status and health of woman night shift worker. The research design were used quantitative analysis with cross sectional design by using univariate and bivariate test. The activity was carried out on two companies that gave and did not provide nutritious food and drinks. Sampling was done by using purposive sampling with total sampling 95 respondents. Statistical tests showed that there was no significant relationship between the adequacy of energy, protein and fat with the provision of nutritious food and beverages in the night shift. There was a tendency of Fat Sufficiency Rate (AKL) on company which provided nutritious food and beverage higher than company which did not provide in a day. There was no difference proportion (unrelated) between provide food and beverage with BMI, anemia status, blood pressure, monthly pain for woman night shift worker and significant relations on age, marital status and working hours on BMI. Suggestion: 1). The Companies are advised to comply with the obligation to provide nutritious food and beverage for workers, adjust the number of calories according to the needs of workers and the type of work; 2). Workers are advised to exercise regularly; 3). The government should review the rules regarding the obligation to give 1400 calories and improve the quidance and supervision of Occupotional Safety and Health (OSH) norms, especially work nutrition.


Bahl, P., Doolan, C., De Silva, C., Chughtai, A. A., Bourouiba, L., & MacIntyre, C. R. (2022). Airborne or Droplet Precautions for Health Workers Treating Coronavirus Disease 2019?. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 225(9), 1561-1568.

Ballard, M., Bancroft, E., Nesbit, J., Johnson, A., Holeman, I., Foth, J., ... & Palazuelos, D. (2020). Prioritising the Role of Community Health Workers in the Covid-19 Response. BMJ Global Health, 5(6), e002550.

Behrens, T., Burek, K., Pallapies, D., Kösters, L., Lehnert, M., Beine, A., ... & Rabstein, S. (2019). Decreased Psychomotor Vigilance of Female Shift Workers After Working Night Shifts. PloS one, 14(7), e0219087.

Bonham, M. P., Bonnell, E. K., & Huggins, C. E. (2016). Energy Intake of Shift Workers Compared to Fixed Day Workers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Chronobiology International, 33(8), 1086-1100.

Brum, M. C. B., Dantas Filho, F. F., Schnorr, C. C., Bertoletti, O. A., Bottega, G. B., & da Costa Rodrigues, T. (2020). Night Shift Work, Short Sleep and Obesity. Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome, 12(1), 1-9.

Chang, W. P., & Peng, Y. X. (2021). Meta-Analysis of Differences in Sleep Quality Based on Actigraphs between Day and Night Shift Workers and the Moderating Effect of Age. Journal of Occupational Health, 63(1), e12262.

Cheng, P., Walch, O., Huang, Y., Mayer, C., Sagong, C., Cuamatzi Castelan, A., ... & Drake, C. L. (2021). Predicting Circadian Misalignment with Wearable Technology: Validation of Wrist-Worn Actigraphy and Photometry in Night Shift Workers. Sleep, 44(2), zsaa180.

Fink, A. M. (2020). Measuring the Effects of Night-Shift Work on Cardiac Autonomic Modulation: An Appraisal of Heart Rate Variability Metrics. Int J Occup Med Environ Health, 33(4), 409-425.

Kamal, S. M., & Islam, A. (2010). Socio-Economic Correlates of Malnutrition among Married Women in Bangladesh. Malaysian journal of nutrition, 16(3).

Liang, Y., Horrey, W. J., Howard, M. E., Lee, M. L., Anderson, C., Shreeve, M. S., ... & Czeisler, C. A. (2019). Prediction of Drowsiness Events in Night Shift Workers during Morning Driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 126, 105-114.

Lim, R. K., Wambier, C. G., & Goren, A. (2020). Are Night Shift Workers at an Increased Risk for COVID-19?. Medical Hypotheses, 144, 110147.

Lim, Y. C., Hoe, V. C., Darus, A., & Bhoo-Pathy, N. (2018). Association between Night-Shift Work, Sleep Quality and Metabolic Syndrome. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 75(10), 716-723.

Loef, B., Nanlohy, N. M., Jacobi, R. H., van de Ven, C., Mariman, R., van der Beek, A. J., ... & van Baarle, D. (2019). Immunological Effects of Shift Work in Healthcare Workers. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 1-11.

Mancio, J., Leal, C., Ferreira, M., Norton, P., & Lunet, N. (2018). Does the Association of Prostate Cancer with Night-Shift Work Differ According to Rotating vs. Fixed Schedule? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, 21(3), 337-344.

Oginska, H., & Pokorski, J. (2006). Fatigue and Mood Correlates of Sleep Length in Three Age‐Social Groups: School Children, Students, and Employees. Chronobiology International, 23(6), 1317-1328.

Rizza, S., Coppeta, L., Grelli, S., Ferrazza, G., Chiocchi, M., Vanni, G., ... & Federici, M. (2021). High Body Mass Index and Night Shift Work Are Associated with COVID-19 in Health Care Workers. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 44(5), 1097-1101.

Shaw, E., Dorrian, J., Coates, A. M., Leung, G. K., Davis, R., Rosbotham, E., ... & Bonham, M. P. (2019). Temporal Pattern of Eating in Night Shift Workers. Chronobiology International, 36(12), 1613-1625.

Stone, J. E., Aubert, X. L., Maass, H., Phillips, A. J., Magee, M., Howard, M. E., ... & Sletten, T. L. (2019). Application of a Limit-Cycle Oscillator Model for Prediction of Circadian Phase in Rotating Night Shift Workers. Scientific reports, 9(1), 1-12.

Streng, A. A., Loef, B., Dollé, M. E., van der Horst, G. T., Chaves, I., Proper, K. I., & van Kerkhof, L. W. (2022). Night Shift Work Characteristics Are Associated with Several Elevated Metabolic Risk Factors and Immune Cell Counts in a Cross-Sectional Study. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 1-11.

Sun, M., Feng, W., Wang, F., Zhang, L., Wu, Z., Li, Z., ... & Tse, L. A. (2018). Night Shift Work Exposure Profile and Obesity: Baseline Results from a Chinese Night Shift Worker Cohort. Plos One, 13(5), e0196989.

Suresh, K. (2015,). Does Shift Work Lead to Change in Energy Intake. Thesis. Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition Faculty of Health Sciences University of Eastern Finland.

van de Langenberg, D., Vlaanderen, J. J., Dollé, M. E., Rookus, M. A., van Kerkhof, L. W., & Vermeulen, R. C. (2019). Diet, Physical Activity, and Daylight Exposure Patterns in Night-Shift Workers and Day Workers. Annals of Work Exposures and Health, 63(1), 9-21.

Vetter, C., Dashti, H. S., Lane, J. M., Anderson, S. G., Schernhammer, E. S., Rutter, M. K., ... & Scheer, F. A. (2018). Night Shift Work, Genetic Risk, and Type 2 Diabetes in the UK Biobank. Diabetes Care, 41(4), 762-769.

Xiang, Y. T., Jin, Y., Wang, Y., Zhang, Q., Zhang, L., & Cheung, T. (2020). Tribute to Health Workers in China: A Group of Respectable Population during the Outbreak of the Covid-19. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 16(10), 1739.

Zhang, W. R., Wang, K., Yin, L., Zhao, W. F., Xue, Q., Peng, M., ... & Wang, H. X. (2020). Mental Health and Psychosocial Problems of Medical Health Workers during the Covid-19 Epidemic in China. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 89(4), 242-250.

How to Cite
Paidi, T. W., & Mulyaningsih, E. (2022). Analysis of the Relationship between Nutritional Status and Health of Female Workers Who Received and Didn’t Get Nutritious Food and Drinks on Night Work Shifts. International Journal of Science and Society, 4(3), 185-213.