Collective Health as a Social Science: Reflections on the Possibilities of a Comprehensive Collective Health

  • Daniel Mendez Diego Portales University, Santiago, Chile
Keywords: Public Health, Epistemology, Understanding, Social Sciences.


Social interaction employs both verbal and nonverbal language. We investigate the confidence level and brain activity when verbal and facial expressions are inconsistent. Four volunteers stored images of eight individuals whose facial expressions were either agradáveis (smiling) or unfavorable (rejection) sozinhas or in combination with a verbal expression [positive / negative]. As a measure of their trust, the participants were asked to make a donation to the individual in the photograph who was in financial distress. The Visual Analogue Scale was utilized to evaluate positive feelings and self-assurance levels (VAS). After seeing the photos, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) are acquired in 170–240 milliseconds. Standardized low-resolution electromagnetic brain tomography was used to pinpoint brain activity under incongruous situations (sLORETA). The VAS values for the positive condition smile were substantially greater than those for the other conditions (p 0.05). For inconsistency between verbal and facial responses, namely the smiling negative condition, the offer was severely reduced. Under discordant conditions, the parietal lobe was more active on EEG than under congruent conditions. Incongruence [negative smile] evoked less positive emotion, confidence, and offer quantity. Our findings indicate that incongruent sensory input increased activity in the parietal lobe, which may be a result of mentalization.


Breilh, J. (2006). Critical epidemiology: emancipatory science and interculturality. In Critical Epidemiology: emancipatory science and interculturality (pp. 317-317).

Cardona, Á., & Franco, Á. (2005). Public health as a scientific discipline: foundation for academic training programs. Journal National Faculty of Public Health, 23(2), 107-114.

Cardona, Á., Sierra Varela, R., Caballero, LS, & Agudelo Acevedo, F. (2008). Corpses, cemeteries and public health in the Viceroyalty of New Granada. In Corpses, cemeteries and public health in the Viceroyalty of New Granada (pp. 157-157).

Descartes, R. (1904). Metaphysical Meditations (Vol. 22). Management and Administration.

Foucault, M. (1994). Hermeneutics of the subject. trans. Madrid: The Pickaxe.

Gadamer, H.G. (1994). Truth and method II Salamanca. Publisher Follow me.

Giddens, A. (1987). New rules of the sociological method. Buenos Aires: Amorrortu.

Gonzalez, E.R. (2007). Public health as a transdisciplinary field. Journal of the National Faculty of Public Health, 25(1).

Guba, E., & Lincoln, Y. (2002). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. Through the corners. Anthology of Qualitative Methods in Social Research, 113-145.

Habermas, J. (1997). Knowledge and Interest. Medellin: Paidos.

Habermas, J., & Redondo, M. J. (1987). Communicative Action Theory. Madrid: Taurus.

Heisenberg W. (1974). Beyond Physics. Madrid: Library of Christian Authors

Hernandez, L. (2003). What is evidence-based public health. Rev Public Health, 5(1), 40-50.

Kuhn, T. S. (2019). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Fund of Economic Culture.

Mardones, J. M. (1991). Philosophy of the human and social sciences: materials for a scientific foundation. Anthropos Publisher.

Martinez, M. (2000). The process of Knowing postulates a new Epistemic paradigm. Latin American Journal of High Advanced Studies, 11(16).

Saenz, MDCL (2001). The Gadamerian application of "phronesis" to "praxis". Contrasts: International Journal of Philosophy, (6), 79-98.

Schutz, A. (1974). The problem of social reality. Buenos Aires. Amorrortu Publishers.

Ugalde, E.G. (2008). Knowledge in public health in an area of loss of anthropocentrism and before a vision of ecological balance. Journal National Faculty of Public Health, 26, 65-90.

How to Cite
Mendez, D. (2022). Collective Health as a Social Science: Reflections on the Possibilities of a Comprehensive Collective Health. International Journal of Science and Society, 4(3), 66-78.