Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Zeolite LTA on Heavily-Contaminated Underground Ghanaian Waters

  • B. Kwakye-Awuah Department of Physics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology
Keywords: Synthesis, zeolite LTA, underground water, silver-zeolite.


Zeolite LTA was synthesized in the laboratory and loaded with silver ions by isomorphous substitution technique. The silver-loaded zeolite A (Ag-LTA) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. XRD and SEM analysis showed little or no changes in the phase purity of all zeolites before and after ion exchange or before and after substitution of silver ions. The antimicrobial activity of the silver-loaded zeolite A was investigated by exposing well water samples from Vui community in the Volta Region of Ghana. Parameters such pH, conductivity and temperature as well as microbial analysis were measured before and after addition of silver-


Hasanudin, H., Nurwulandari, A., Adnyana, I. M., & Loviana, N. (2020). The Effect of Ownership and Financial Performance on Firm Value of Oil and Gas Mining Companies in Indonesia. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 10(5), 103.

Sugiono, E., Nurwulandari, A., & Khairina, F. (2021). The Effect of Promotion Mix on Sales Performance Mediated by Customer Loyalty at Paul Bakery Kota Kasablanka Jakarta. ENDLESS: International Journal of Future Studies, 4(1), 93-111.

S. Cairncross, ‘‘Water Supply and Sanitation: an agenda for research’’. The Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92(5), pp. 301 – 304, 1987.

N. Kumar, ‘‘A review of freshwater environment’’. Ecological and Environmental Conservation 3, pp. 3 – 4, 1997.

R. C. Wright, ‘‘The seasonality of bacterial quality of water in a tropical developing country (Sierra Leone)’’. Hydrobiologia. 96(1), 75 – 82, 1986.

H. F. Dallas, J. A. Day, ‘‘The effect of water quality variables on river and ecosystem’’. Water Research Commision, Report No. TT61/93, South Africa

K. M. Poon, ‘‘A. Burd, In vitro toxicity of silver: implication for clinical wound care’’. Burns 30, pp. 140– 147, 2004.

H. Q. Yin, R. Langford, R. E. Burrell, ‘‘Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Acticoat antimicrobial barrier dressing’’. Journal of Burn Care Rehabilitation 20, pp. 195–200, 1999.

W. B. Hugo, ‘‘The degradation of preservatives by micro-organisms’’. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation. , pp. 185–194, 1991.

X-C. Li, L. Cai, C. D. Wu, ‘‘Antimicrobial compounds from Ceanothus americanus against oral pathogens’’. Phytochemistry 46(1), pp. 97 – 102, 1997b.

D. Russell, W. B. Hugo, ‘‘Antibacterial activity and action of silver’’. Progress in Medicinal Chemistry. [10] 31, pp. 351 – 370, 1994.

Sondi, B. Salopek-Sondi, ‘‘Silver nanoparticles as antimicrobial agent: a case study on E. coli as a model for gram-negative bacteria’’. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 275(1), pp. 177 – 182, 2004.

B. Kwakye-Awuah, I, Radecka, M. A. Kenward, C. Williams, ‘‘Antimicrobial Action and efficiency of silver-loaded zeolite X’’. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 104(5), pp. 1516 – 1524, 2008a.

B. Kwakye-Awuah, I, Radecka, M. A. Kenward, C. Williams, ‘‘Production of silver-doped analcime by isomorphous substitution technique’’. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 83(9), pp. 1255 – 1260, 2008b.

J. Kim, E. Kuk, K. Yu, J. Kim, S. Park, H. Lee, S. Kim, Park, C. Hwang, Y. Kim, Y. Lee, Jeong, M. Cho, ‘‘Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles’’. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, 3, pp. 95 – 101, 2007.

W. K. Jung, H. C. Koo, K. W. Kim, S. Shin, S. H. Kim, H. Park, ‘‘Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of the silver ion in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli’’. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74(7), pp. 2171 – 2178, 2008.

L. Fewtrell, R. B. Kaufmann, D. Kay, W. Enanoria, L. Haller, J. M Colford Jr, ‘‘Water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to reduce diarrhoea in less developed countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis’’. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 5(1), pp. 42 – 52, 2005.

B. K. Kortatsi, ‘‘Ground water utilization in Ghana’’. In Proceedings of the Helensinki Conference on Groundwater Resources at Risk, pp. 149 – 156, 1994.

C. B. Shirley, G. S. Solt, An Engineer’s Guide to Water Treatment, Brookfield Gower Publishing , USA, 2002

M. D. Sobsey, Managing Water in the Home: Accelerated Health Gains from Improved Water Supply. WHO Report WHO/SDE/WSH/02.07, WHO, Switzerland, 2002.

G. Ertl, H. Knözinger, J. Weitkamp, Preparation of solid catalysts. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, USA, 1999

. I. Occelli, H. Kessler, Synthesis of Porous Materials: Zeolites, Clays and Nanostructures, CRC Press New York, 1997.

How to Cite
B. Kwakye-Awuah. (2021). Antimicrobial Activity of Silver-Zeolite LTA on Heavily-Contaminated Underground Ghanaian Waters. International Journal of Science and Society, 3(2), 18-23.