Analysis of the Roles and Capabilities of the Indonesian National Armed Forces in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic as a Non-Military Threat

  • Heri Wiranto Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Muhadjir Muhammad Darwin Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Agus Heruanto Hadna Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Djokosantoso Moeljono Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Keywords: TNI, OMSP, Covid-19, Non-Military Threat, Cooperation.


The spread of COVID-19 has been declared a non-natural national disaster, and it is recognized as a genuine non-military threat that necessitates collaboration among various institutions, particularly within the context of non-military defense, which falls under the purview of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI). Responding to COVID-19 falls under the government’s responsibility, which includes the establishment of the COVID-19 Response Acceleration Task Force. The collaboration between civilian institutions and the TNI as elements of the unit is expected to demonstrate a streamlined and effective command line, aiming to uphold and safeguard the nation’s security effectively. This paper aims to analyze the role and capacity of TNI in addressing the COVID-19 Pandemic as a non-military threat by measuring the impact of various determinants on the implementation of the role and capabilities of TNI. The research employed a mixed methods approach, incorporating both sequential and concurrent models. Additionally, it involved an in-depth qualitative analysis of each determinant utilized in handling the COVID-19 pandemic. Generally, the primary elements in the COVID-19 Response Acceleration Task Force are civilian institutions based on the category of disaster and its societal impact. Nevertheless, the involvement of TNI through Military Operations Other Than War (OMSP) can expedite COVID-19 management through aid and humanitarian operations. Non-military defense operations strategically establish control command between ministries/agencies and local governments. The optimization of TNI’s capabilities in crisis management involves deploying personnel across Indonesia, with a central command under the TNI Commander and the establishment of command centers in crisis-affected areas. The success of TNI’s performance can be evaluated by examining its strategic leadership and patterns of civil-military cooperation in a systematic and deliberate manner.


Ajayi, K. (ed). Readings in Intelligence and Security Studies. Abuja: Afe Babalola University.

Anggraini, H. (2020). Keterlibatan Militer Menuju Fase New Normal Tuai Tanda Tanya. Retrieved from:

Aning, K., & Lartey, E. A. (2019). Governance Perspectives of Human Security in Africa. Asian Journal of Peacebuilding, 7(2), 219-237.

Ataman, M. (2020). Coronavirus: A Human Security Issue. Retrieved from:

CNN Indonesia. (2021). Rincian Anggaran PEN 2021 Sebesar Rp 627,9 T. Retrieved from:

Di Liddo, M. (2021). The Impact of Covid-19 on Human Security. Roma: Centro Studi Internazionali.

Gunawan, A. (2021). Bangun! Gelombang Kedua Covid-19 RI Sudah Menyapu. Retrieved from:

Kamradt-Scott, A. (2014). Saving Lives: The Civil-Military Response to the 2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa. Sydney: University of Sydney.

Kementerian Pertahanan RI. (2022). Kebijakan Peran Kemhan dan TNI dalam Menghadapi Pandemi Covid-19. Retrieved from:

Law Number 34 of 2004 on the Indonesian National Armed Forces.

Mas’udi, W., & Winanti, P. S. (2021). Tata Kelola Penanganan COVID-19 di Indonesia: Kajian Awal. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

McInnis, K. J. (2020). COVID-19: National Security and Defense Security. U.S. Congressional Research Service IF11525, 30 April.

Minister of Defense Regulation Number 19 of 2006 on the Strategic Guidelines for Non-Military Defense.

Mulyana, C. (2020). Pelibatan TNI Keseriusan Perangi Covid-19. Retrieved from:

Nanthini, S. (2023). Public Health Emergencies: Moving Beyond Ad Hoc Military Responses. IDSS Paper.

Nurhasanah, S., Napang, M., & Rohman, S. (2020). Covid-19 as a Non-Traditional Threat to Human Security. Journal of Strategic and Global Studies, 3(1), 54-68.

Presidential Regulation Number 48 of 2023 on the Termination of COVID-19 Pandemic Response.

Presidential Regulation Number 12 of 2020 on the Stipulation of the Non-Natural Disaster of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 as a National Disaster.

Putri, C. A. (2020). BPK: Anggaran Penanganan Covid-19 RI Tembus Rp 1.000 T. Retrieved from:

Sari, M. I., Sulistyani, Y. A., & Pertiwi, A. C. (2020). The Role of the Defense Institutions in Handling the Covid-19 Pandemic. Jurnal Pertahanan dan Bela Negara, 10(2), 175-194.

Sari, V. Y. (2020). Analisis Respons Pemerintah Tiongkok dalam Upaya Penanganan Covid-19. Sentris: Academic Journal of International Relations, 1(2), 173-186.

Satgas Penanganan Covid-19a. (2022). Situasi COVID-19 di Indonesia (Update per 31 Desember 2022). Retrieved fromL

Satgas Penanganan Covid-19b. (2022). Realisasi Anggaran Penanganan COVID-19 dan Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional (PC-PEN) (24 Juni 2022). Retrieved from:,),%2C9%25%20dari%20alokasi%20anggaran

Tuser, I., & Hoskova-Mayerova, S. (2020). Emergency Management in Resolving an Emergency Situation”, Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 13(11), 1-12.

Wahono, S., & Kosandi, M. (2020). Military Reform in the Post-New Order Indonesia: A Transitional or a New Subtle Role in Indonesian Democrary?. Asian Politics & Policy, 12(2), 224-241.

Watts, J. (2016). Zika Virus Command Center Leads Biggest Military Operation in Brazil’s History. Retrieved from:

World Health Organization. (2021). National Civil-Miltary Health Collaboration Framework for Strengthening Health Emergency Preparadness: WHO Guidance Document. Geneva: World Health Organization.

How to Cite
Wiranto, H., Darwin, M. M., Hadna, A. H., & Moeljono, D. (2023). Analysis of the Roles and Capabilities of the Indonesian National Armed Forces in Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic as a Non-Military Threat. International Journal of Science and Society, 5(5), 403-423.